Blast Mitigation Glass

Introduction

Oldcastle BuildingEnvelope®'s blast-resistant laminated glass is an excellent glazing choice in all types of buildings that may be subjected to bomb blasts. The tough plastic interlayer holds the glass together after an impact, and with the proper framing systems, the glazing will be retained in the opening. Thus, the amount of flying glass, as well as the consequential injuries, can be dramatically reduced. Glass fragmentation hazards have been identified as a main cause of injury in the targeted site, as well as the peripheral sites; sometimes many blocks from the site of the bomb.

    Capabilities

    Blast Mitigation Glass Capabilities

    • The following constructions of laminated glass are most commonly specified for bomb-blast resistance. As with all laminated glazing, the glass can be supplied as tinted or reflective for light and solar control purposes. The lites of glass can be either annealed or heat-strengthened. Oldcastle BuildingEnvelope® does not recommend tempered laminated glass in this type of application. When insulating glass units are required for thermal performance, Oldcastle BuildingEnvelope® recommends that both lites of the IG unit be laminated in order to provide maximum protection for those both inside and outside the building. If only one lite in the IG unit is to be laminated, it must be the interior lite so as to protect the occupants of the building.

      Product # Construction
      Glass-PVB-Glass: inches
      Thickness
      inches
      Weight
      mm
      lbs/ft2 kg/m2
      110100 1/8–0.060–1/8 5/16 8 3.58 17.5
      110110 3/16–0.060–3/16 7/16 11 5.21 25.4
      110120 1/4–0.060–1/4 9/16 14 6.83 33.3
    Description

    Blast Mitigation Glass Description

    • Oldcastle BuildingEnvelope®'s blast-resistant laminated glass is an excellent glazing choice in all types of buildings that may be subjected to bomb blasts. The tough plastic interlayer holds the glass together after an impact, and with the proper framing systems, the glazing will be retained in the opening. Thus, the amount of flying glass, as well as the consequential injuries, can be dramatically reduced.

      The pressure from a bomb typically consists of a wave that rises almost instantaneously to a very high peak pressure that falls back to zero in a very short duration, as measured in milliseconds. For example, a 27 lb. bomb detonated from a stand-off distance of 48 ft. produces a peak pressure of 10 psi (1,440 psf) for 3.3 milliseconds. The area under the pressure time graph is called the impulse and is measured in psi-ms. Blast wave energy decreases very rapidly with distance so that the most effective protection is to increase this "stand-off" distance. However, this is not always a viable or economic option.

      8 lbs of C-4 explosive (TNT equivalent of 10 lbs) detonated 57 feet from target; atmospheric pressure of 12.9 psi.

      The General Services Administration (GSA), which is responsible for all US nonmilitary federal buildings, developed an approach for blast resistance. This approach has been included in the Interagency Security Committee (ISC) document that is now being used to evaluate vulnerability and provide design guidelines for government-owned and leased buildings.

      The General Services Administration (GSA), which is responsible for all US nonmilitary federal buildings, developed an approach for blast resistance. This approach has been included in the Interagency Security Committee (ISC) document that is now being used to evaluate vulnerability and provide design guidelines for government-owned and leased buildings.

      Table 1
      GSA Building
      Classification
      Examples Max
      Overpressure
      Max
      Impulse
      A No protection 0 0
      B No protection 0 0
      C Fed courts, fed buildings, etc. 4 psi 28 psi ms
      D High-level military, e.g., Pentagon 10 psi 89 psi ms
      E White House Classified Classified

       

      Table 2
      Hazard 1 Hazard 2 Hazard 3 Hazard 3B Hazard 4 Hazard 5
      No glass
      breakage
      Minimal
      spall
      Spall up to
      3ft (1m)
      Spall up to
      10ft (3m)
      Hits back wall
      up to 2ft high
      Hits back wall
      >= 2ft high
    Glass Colors

    Laminated Glass Colors

    • Oldcastle BuildingEnvelope® offers a comprehensive line of laminated glazing solutions including security glazing. The glass types listed below are included in the Laminated Glass offering. Oldcastle BuildingEnvelope® offers a variety of glass products to meet your architectural glazing design needs. Please contact Oldcastle BuildingEnvelope® for product availability and performance data as this information is subject to change without notice.

      Laminated architectural glass can be fabricated using various glass types, including low-e, clear, low-iron, tinted, reflective, patterned or wired glass to achieve desired aesthetics or to improve solar control and thermal performance. Mass pigmented and decorative interlayers can also be use to provide a wide range of effects.

      For monolithic, laminated or insulating glass unit performance data, please go to GlasSelect®, our on-line glass performance calculator. For a brief tutorial on how to use GlasSelect®, please click on How to Use GlasSelect® Demo.

      The tables below include a selection of the most common colors available. For full details of the decorative interlayers including Vanceva® Color, Pattern, Metallic and Image see the decorative section

      Assistance Options:

      1. Call toll-free, 866-653-2278.
      2. Send e-mail to support@obe.com.
      3. To submit a more detailed request, click on one of the following to open a contact form:
        1. General inquiry
        2. Project specific

      Clear Glass Products
      Laminated 1/8" Clear - 0.030" Clear PVB - 1/8" Clear 
      Laminated 1/8" Clear - 0.060" Clear PVB - 1/8" Clear 
      Laminated 1/8" Clear - 0.090" Clear PVB - 1/8" Clear 
      Laminated 1/8” Clear - 0.035” DuPont SentryGlas® - 1/8” Clear
      Laminated 1/8” Clear - 0.060” DuPont SentryGlas® - 1/8” Clear
      Laminated 1/8” Clear - 0.090” DuPont SentryGlas® - 1/8” Clear
      Laminated 1/8" Clear - 0.100" Saflex® HP Clear PVB - 1/8" Clear 
      Laminated 1/8" Clear - 0.075" StormGlass™ - 1/8" Clear 
      Laminated 3/16" Clear - 0.030" Clear PVB - 3/16" Clear 
      Laminated 3/16" Clear - 0.060" Clear PVB - 3/16" Clear 
      Laminated 3/16" Clear - 0.090" Clear PVB - 3/16" Clear 
      Laminated 3/16” Clear - 0.035” DuPont SentryGlas® - 3/16” Clear
      Laminated 3/16” Clear - 0.060” DuPont SentryGlas® - 3/16” Clear
      Laminated 3/16” Clear - 0.090” DuPont SentryGlas® - 3/16” Clear
      Laminated 3/16" Clear - 0.100" Saflex® HP Clear PVB - 3/16" Clear 
      Laminated 3/16" Clear - 0.075" StormGlass™ - 3/16" Clear 
      Laminated 1/4" Clear - 0.030" Clear PVB - 1/4" Clear 
      Laminated 1/4" Clear - 0.060" Clear PVB - 1/4" Clear 
      Laminated 1/4" Clear - 0.090" Clear PVB - 1/4" Clear 
      Laminated 1/4” Clear - 0.035” DuPont SentryGlas® - 1/4” Clear
      Laminated 1/4” Clear - 0.060” DuPont SentryGlas® - 1/4” Clear
      Laminated 1/4” Clear - 0.090” DuPont SentryGlas® - 1/4” Clear
      Laminated 1/4" Clear - 0.100" Saflex® HP Clear PVB - 1/4" Clear 
      Laminated 1/4" Clear - 0.075" StormGlass™ - 1/4" Clear 

       

      White Glass Products
      Laminated 1/8" Clear - 0.015" Vanceva® Polar White (220700) PVB + 0.015" Saflex® Clear PVB - 1/8" Clear 
      Laminated 1/8" Clear - 0.030" Vanceva® Arctic Snow (216500) White PVB - 1/8" Clear 
      Laminated 1/8" Clear - 0.030" Vanceva® Cool White (218000) PVB - 1/8" Clear
      Laminated 1/8" Clear - 0.030" Butacite® Translucent White (2165) White PVB - 1/8" Clear
      Laminated 1/8" Clear - 0.030" Butacite® Soft White (2180) White PVB - 1/8" Clear

       

      Grey Glass Products
      Tint
      Laminated 1/8" Clear - 0.030" Saflex® Medium Gray (654400) PVB - 1/8" Clear
      Laminated 1/8" Clear - 0.015" Vanceva® Evening Shadow (835000) PVB + 0.015" Saflex® Clear PVB - 1/8" Clear
      Laminated 1/8" Clear - 0.015" Vanceva® Smoke Gray (837800) PVB + 0.015" Saflex® Clear PVB - 1/8" Clear
      Laminated 1/8" Clear - 0.030" Butacite® Gray (6544) PVB - 1/8" Clear
      Laminated 1/8" Gray - 0.060" Clear PVB - 1/8" Clear
      Laminated 1/8" Gray - 0.060" Clear PVB - 1/8" Gray
      Laminated 3/16" Gray - 0.060" Clear PVB - 3/16" Clear
      Laminated 3/16" Gray - 0.060" Clear PVB - 3/16" Gray
      Laminated 1/4" Gray - 0.060" Clear PVB - 1/4" Clear
      Laminated 1/4" Guardian MidnightGray™ High Performance Tint - 0.060” Clear PVB - 1/4" Clear
      Laminated 1/4" Pilkington SuperGrey™ High Performance Tint - 0.060" Clear PVB - 1/4" Clear
      Laminated 1/4" PPG Graylite® II High Performance Tint - 0.060" Clear PVB - 1/4" Clear
      Reflective
      Laminated 1/4" PPG Solarcool® Gray Reflective #2 - 0.060" Clear PVB - 1/4" Clear
      Laminated 1/4" PPG Solarcool® Graylite® Reflective #2 - 0.060" Clear PVB - 1/4" Clear

       

      Bronze Glass Products
      Tint
      Laminated 1/8" Clear - 0.030" Saflex® Light Bronze (645200) PVB - 1/8" Clear 
      Laminated 1/8" Clear - 0.030" Butacite® Bronze (6452) PVB - 1/8" Clear
      Laminated 1/8" Bronze - 0.060" Clear PVB - 1/8" Clear 
      Laminated 1/8" Bronze - 0.060" Clear PVB - 1/8" Bronze 
      Laminated 3/16" Bronze - 0.060" Clear PVB - 3/16" Clear 
      Laminated 3/16" Bronze - 0.060" Clear PVB - 3/16" Bronze 
      Laminated 1/4" Bronze - 0.060" Clear PVB - 1/4" Clear 
      Reflective
      Laminated 1/4" PPG Solarcool® Bronze Reflective #2 - 0.060" Clear PVB - 1/4" Clear

       

      Green Glass Products
      Tint
      Laminated 1/8" Green - 0.060" Clear PVB - 1/8" Clear 
      Laminated 1/8" Green - 0.060" Clear PVB - 1/8" Green 
      Laminated 3/16" Green - 0.060" Clear PVB - 3/16" Clear 
      Laminated 3/16" Green - 0.060" Clear PVB - 3/16" Green 
      Laminated 1/4" Green - 0.060" Clear PVB - 1/4" Clear
      Laminated 1/4" Guardian TwilightGreen™ High Performance Tint - 0.060" Clear PVB - 1/4" Clear
      Laminated 1/4" Pilkington EverGreen™ High Performance Tint - 0.060" Clear PVB - 1/4" Clear 
      Laminated 1/4" PPG Atlantica™ High Performance Tint - 0.060" Clear PVB - 1/4" Clear 
      Reflective
      Laminated 1/4" PPG Solarcool® Solexia™ Reflective #2 - 0.060" Saflex® Clear PVB - 1/4" Clear
      Laminated 1/4" PPG Vistacool™ Atlantica™ Reflective #2 - 0.060" Clear PVB - 1/4" Clear

       

      Blue-Green Glass Products
      Tint
      Laminated 1/8" Clear - 0.030" Saflex® Medium Blue-Green (377300) PVB - 1/8" Clear 
      Laminated 1/8" Clear - 0.030" Butacite® Light Blue-Green (3773) PVB - 1/8" Clear
      Laminated 1/4" Pilkington Optifloat™ Blue-Green Tint - 0.060" Clear PVB - 1/4" Clear
      Laminated 1/4" PPG Azuria™ High Performance Tint - 0.060" Clear PVB - 1/4" Clear
      Reflective
      Laminated 1/4" PPG Solarcool® Azuria™ (2) - 0.060" Clear PVB - 1/4" Clear

       

      Blue Glass Products
      Tint
      Laminated 1/8" Clear - 0.015" Vanceva® Aquamarine (827800) PVB + 0.015" Saflex® Clear PVB - 1/8" Clear 
      Laminated 1/8" Clear - 0.015" Vanceva® Sapphire (825000) PVB + 0.015" Saflex® Clear PVB - 1/8" Clear 
      Laminated 1/8" Clear - 0.015" Vanceva® True Blue (841400) PVB + 0.015" Saflex® Clear PVB - 1/8" Clear 
      Laminated 1/4" Pilkington Arctic Blue™ - 0.060" Clear PVB - 1/4" Clear
      Laminated 1/4" PPG Solarblue™ - 0.060" Clear PVB - 1/4" Clear
      Laminated 1/4" PPG Pacifica™ High Performance Tint - 0.060" Clear PVB - 1/4" Clear
      Reflective
      Laminated 1/4" PPG Solarcool® Pacifica™ Reflective #2 - 0.060" Clear PVB - 1/4" Clear
      Laminated 1/4" PPG Solarcool® Solarblue™ Reflective #2 - 0.060" Clear PVB - 1/4" Clear
      Laminated 1/4" PPG Vistacool™ Pacifica™ Reflective #2 - 0.060" Clear PVB - 1/4" Clear

       

    Installation Guidelines

    Blast Mitigation Glass Installation Guidelines

    • These guidelines are to be used in addition to, and in conjunction with, the guidelines in the latest edition of the Glazing Manual published by the Glass Association of North America and Oldcastle BuildingEnvelope® Glazing Instructions. These should be included as part of the glazing specifications. Failure to follow these guidelines may result in voiding of the warranty.

      Setting Blocks

      All laminated glass should be installed on setting blocks positioned on the lower edge at the quarter points. The setting block should have a Shore A durometer of 85±5, support the entire thickness of the glass and be 0.1" long, per square foot of glazing, but not less than 4" in length. Ensure that the setting blocks are manufactured from Santoprene, Silicone, EPDM or any other material compatible with silicone and the rest of the glazing components. Pay particular attention to compatibility when the laminated glass contains a
      polycarbonate.

      Clearances

      Adequate clearances must be maintained to prevent glass damage or breakage as a result of glass-tometal contact. A minimum of a 1/8" face clearance should be maintained using a cushioning material. Edge clearance should be a minimum of 1/4"; however, due to the expansion of polycarbonate, any laminate containing this material should have a 1/16" edge clearance per foot of glass length. To reduce in-service breakage, avoid excessive clamping pressures, especially on thin annealed glass, bullet-resistant materials.

      Edge Engagement

      All forced-entry glass must have a minimum of a 1" edge engagement. Clearances and setting block allowances are in addition to this engagement. Any reduction in this edge engagement can cause the performance of the product to be reduced and the test certificate may no longer be applicable.

      Weep System

      The edges of laminated glass must not be exposed to standing water. All framing systems must be designed to accommodate a reliable weep system, as no cap seal is 100% reliable. In addition, it is extremely important that any cleaning solutions used on either face of the glass be allowed to drain out of the frame. It is the responsibility of the designer and the installer to ensure that the weep system works correctly. Do not glaze any laminated glass in a system without adequate drainage.

      Sealants and Caulking

      An appropriate sealant should be used to seal the glazing to the frame. Sealant and caulking manufacturers regularly change their products' raw materials. Therefore, it is essential that the installer checks with the appropriate manufacturer for compatibility of any product, before use. This is particularly important for security glazing containing polycarbonate, as some solvents used in sealants can cause crazing and ultimate failure of the product. This warning also applies to any varnishes, primers or paints used on the framing system. These finishes should be allowed to fully dry before glazing commences.

      Threat Surface

      Most bullet-resistant glazing products and some forced-entry products are not symmetrical and have a threat side, attack face or impact face. All glass of this type supplied by Oldcastle BuildingEnvelope® is shipped with a removable label specifying the impact face. This side MUST be installed toward the threat side. Failure to do this can seriously affect the ability of the product to resist the specified threat. This label should be left on until final inspection and/or sign-off occurs.

      Storage

      Shipments should be scheduled so that glass is stored on the site for a maximum of 30 days. If the glass is to be stored for longer than this, it should be removed from the construction site to a controlled environment. When on the site, store crates indoors and keep them dry. Ensure that the stored glass remains above the dew point at all times; otherwise, condensation and staining can occur. Protect the
      crates from exposure and possible damage from the practices of other construction trades.

      Handling

      Only remove the glass from the crates when it is ready to be installed. Remove glass from the front of the crate–never by sliding to the side. On security glass with exposed polycarbonate, pay particular attention to this face. Never allow glass to rest on uncushioned surfaces. When exposed polycarbonate is supplied with a protective removable sheet, this must be removed immediately after the installation. Never allow the sun to bake this protective film on to the glazing. Never allow anything to rest against the glass. DO NOT install any glass that has been damaged, however slightly. Even small cracks at the edges can ultimately "run" due to thermal expansion while in service. Oldcastle BuildingEnvelope® does not warrant glass breakage.

      Cleaning

      Do not expose the edges of any laminated glass to organic solvents, acids or any cleaner containing ammonia, which can react with the plastic components. Once the glazing is installed, the glazing contractor should ensure that the glazing is protected from possible damage caused by the construction practices of other trades. Take particular care during the initial cleaning, especially if the surfaces are severely soiled. Never attempt to remove dry deposits. NEVER use a sharp blade or scraper to remove deposits or clean
      the glass.

      First flush with water to soften and remove as many contaminants as possible. Then use a clean squeegee to remove excess water, ensuring that abrasive deposits do not get trapped between the squeegee and the glass surface. Then use a mild nonabrasive, nonalkaline cleaner and a soft, grit-free cloth to clean the glass. Rinse immediately with water, removing excess water with a squeegee.

      For routine cleaning, a mild soap or detergent, with lukewarm water, can be used with a clean, grit-free cloth. Dry the surface immediately and never allow metallic or hard objects, such as razor blades or scrapers, to come into contact with the glass.

      Cleaning Exposed Polycarbonate

      All exposed polycarbonate has a mar-resistant coating; however, extra care must be taken to avoid scratching or other damage. Do not use any abrasive cleaners or solvents. Wash with a mild detergent and lukewarm water, using a clean, grit-free cloth. Rinse immediately with clean water and dry with a chamois or moist cellulose sponge to avoid water spots. Fresh paint, grease and smeared glazing compounds can be removed using isopropyl alcohol. Afterward, wash with warm water and a mild detergent, as noted above.

    Specifications

    Blast Mitigation Glass Specifications laminated_blast_resist.doc

    Literature

    • Blast Mitigation Glass Sell Sheet(PDF)